Question For Experts
Q. Why China have become aggressive Against India ? While India is one of biggest trade partner of China, also China have big trade surplus. As both are nuclear power country, So we can't expect war like situation. Even China Knows that India have awesome military power

Replied by Dr Teshu Singh
China has always been aggressive towards India. The bilateral trade between India and China has grown significantly in the last decade, from USD 3 billion in 2001 to USD 81.66 billion in 2020. The imports from China was USD 65.26 and export USD16.6 billion. The trade is skewed highly in China’s favour. Besides, China has a Sino-centric world view implying that they have been always at the centre of the world. China views India as a competitor in South Asia and particularly in the Indian Ocean region. China’s policy towards the South Asian region is essential to diminish the strategic space for India in the region. The increasing “strategic glue..

Q. According to the ceasefire agreement between Armenia and Azerbaijan, latter will take over the control of Nagarno Karabakh but at the same time Russia has deployed its peacekeeping forces in the region. So is it some kind of larger game plan of Putin to spread Russia's influence in the region and dictate terms according to its own interests? Russia is increasing its influence in the Middle East?

Replied by Dr Himani Pant
Moscow has sought to pursue a neutral policy towards both Yerevan and Baku. Despite its military commitments (limited to recognised Armenian territory) and deeper ties with Armenia, Russia shares robust ties with Azerbaijan as well- it sells weapons to both the countries. As the developments leading to the latest ceasefire show, Russia responded in a fairly restrained manner after tensions between these two South Caucasus countries resurfaced last year. Russia’s interests/actions in this context must be differentiated from its interests in the Middle East and as does its influence. The clashes in the Nagarno Karabakh comprise a regional dispute where l..

Q. How India deals with both Russia as well as the US in the age of Globalisation?

Replied by Aayush Mohanty
India's relationship with Russia and the U.S since the end of the Cold War around 30 years ago has been cordial while strengthening defence and technology cooperation. India's unique foreign policy to not take sides in a conflict while maintaining the non-alignment stance. Although, there has been a shift from non-alignment to multi-alignment as India believes that in a globalised world multipolarity is the way to move forward. Multipolarity would be necessary to deal especially with non-traditional security threats like climate change, which threatens the national security of all countries. The recent news cycle has put emphasis on a deepening of India-..

Q. (1) With growing influence of radicalized extremist ideologies like Wahhabism and Salafism Islam in the minds of Muslim youths of India and degrading communal harmony due to current political scenario of India, Can China and Pakistan take advantage of this situation In case of a full-fledged war ? (2) Can Blocking of Roads and specified areas where Muslims are in majority, Impose a serious logistics disadvantage to Indian Security forces in their capability to mobilize quickly? (3) What steps are taken by Indian Government to prevent radicalization of youth through social media and Extremist Ideologies supporting Organizations ( like , PFI, SDFI) within India ? (4) Why has government not formed any agency to counter the Social Media and Hybrid warfare launched by Pakistan ( Inter Services Public Relations, Pakistan) and Chinese Communist party led fake propaganda against India ?

Replied by Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)
  1. Though there is some case of growing influence of radicalised extremist ideologies, the cases are not alarming and are isolated in nature. India has a Muslim population of 19.5 crores, home to 10.3% of the world population, third largest Muslim populated country in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan. In fact, the number of Muslim population in India and Pakistan are almost same. In spite of having such large populations of Muslims, the number of people joining ISIS are miniscule compared to other countries including some of the western countries. There will be isolated incidents but Indian state is quite capable of dealing wi..

Q: Has India been utilizing Open Source Intelligence? How can OSINT be institutionalized in India?

Replied by Lt Gen Gautam Banerjee
What we obtain from ‘Open Sources’ – news paper reports, broadcasts, discussion forums, seminars, books, articles, papers and maps published by institutions etc. – are actually ‘information’, not intelligence. When such information is professionally processed for purposes like planning, decision making etc. in any field of activity, the information turns into workable data or statistics. One set of information may be of use in different ways for different purposes, whereas some are relevant for a particular purpose – education, construction, governance etc. In the field of security, when information is corroborated, authenticate..

Q. What does the term "Islamophobia" precisely mean? And what is India's take on rising tensions in Europe and the West with respect to Islamic extremism? As it is often associated with terrorism and militancy, what should be India's counter strategy to effectively tackle such propaganda at the root?

Replied by Anurag Sharma
Thank you for your question, Deepthi. The term ‘Islamophobia’, that has often appeared in western media or articles, is nothing but a prejudiced notion of hate or racism against Islam religion and its followers due to its “unfortunate” linkages with the act of terrorism. The phenomenon of Islamophobia emerged after series of terrorist attacks and incidents, mainly September 11 attacks in the US, July 7 bombings in London, various attacks in Europe, and rise of the Islamic State terror organisation post-2014. India has been condemning the acts of terrorism in Europe recently. The situation in Europe is majorly affected by the foreign (terroris..

Q. In the recent events in Armenia Azerbaijan war ,where Turkish drones have shown a significant impact on the outcome of war where high cost weapons like s300 and other arms seems ineffective in front of drones, should India be worried due to the complicated relationship with turkey and its close ties with Pakistan? What is India doing to improve it's armed drone capabilities and to replenish the urgent need for armed drones?

Replied by Dr Pravesh Kumar Gupta
India's relationship with Turkey has seen some differences but it has never been tense. Pakistan of course shares a cordial relationship with Turkey, but the rivalry brewing between the Arabs and Turkey, seems to have intensified, as Erdogan pushes for Turkey to reach the same heights of growth, prosperity, and power as they did at the peak of Ottoman Empire. Pakistan's closeness to Turkey has cost its goodwill with the Arabs, which has offered a better opportunity for India to enjoy better relations and go beyond the oil trade. About the question on drones, India's armed forces recognise the changing nature of how wars are fought and on..

Q. Is India equipped well to deal with the threats of 6th generation warfare?

Replied by Lt Gen Gautam Banerjee
First let us fathom your query:
War is unquantifiable in terms of commitment of resources, unfathomable in terms of means and methods, foggy in terms of situations and unpredictable in terms of outcomes. That it demands commitment of ultimate human and material resources, is violent and destructive in nature, and leads to long-lasting ramifications upon the participants’ psyche as well as their future aspirations, makes War a very very serious business. It is therefore an event that cannot be bound within the definitions of straight and linear parameters. Within the broad and flexible frameworks of the pristine ..

Q. Will protectionism help our Economy in any way? Aren't we, in certain ways, heading back to the pre 91 days?

Replied by Aayush Mohanty
There is historical evidence that whenever there is a sharp economic downturn, it engenders protectionism. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to this year’s forecasted GDP reductions in the major trading nations, leading to governments resorting to protectionism and economic policies taking an inward turn. The actions after the Great Depression of the 1930s led to import restrictions. In modern times governments resorted to extensive scale subsidisation of farmers and manufactured in response to Global Financial Crisis. Every time a widespread economic downturn occurs, governments use this as an excuse to discriminate against foreign commercial interests. ..

Q. Can India wage a limited war at LAC to regain the lost territories in Ladakh (upto Finger 8 maybe)? What are the possible non-military means by which we can coerce China to status-quo-ante in the near term? Why China is not mounting additional military pressure along LAC in the Eastern Sector where it has clear strategic advantages?

Replied by Lt Gen Gautam Banerjee
India can engage in battles at the tactical level to evict the recent intrusions in Ladakh. Beyond that, and in a prolonged military conflict which will certainly ensue into a full-fledged reaction, China will eventually have the upper hand, so as to be able to show her prowess, even if that comes with heavy political and military losses. Her intense sense of superiority and innately hegemonic ambitions, both matched by resources and autarkic political will, would not allow China to concede, whatever be the cost. Chairman of the Communist Party and his Politburo are not answerable to the people, and therefore human, social and economic los..

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