Fortifying State Secrets: China's Authoritarian Revamp of the State Secrets Law
Ankit K

China's State Secrets Law, a cornerstone in the nation's authoritarian stranglehold on information, is undergoing a radical overhaul with the recent submission of a draft amendment. To fully grasp the implications of this legislative overhaul, it is imperative to navigate the historical trajectory of China's oppressive state secrets laws, dissect the intricacies of the proposed 2023 amendments, and comprehend the severe political and societal ramifications within the broader landscape of China's increasingly oppressive political regime.

Unraveling the historical evolution of China's state secrets laws exposes a convoluted legal labyrinth entrenched since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949. The enduring emphasis on authoritarian information control has remained unwavering, with intermittent revisions mirroring the capricious shifts in political dynamics. The 1988 State Secrets Law ostensibly aimed at clarity, attempting to pigeonhole information into top-secret, highly secret, and secret classifications, coupled with ostensibly transparent declassification procedures. Yet, beneath this veneer, it served as a tool to fortify the regime's grip on sensitive information, perpetuating an opaque and authoritarian regime.[1] Nevertheless, the persistent ambiguity, particularly in delineating the scope of "state secrets," endured, creating formidable obstacles for both domestic and foreign entities navigating China's regulatory landscape. The 2010 amendments purported to bring about improvements by providing ostensibly clearer directives on the management of classified information, yet crucial questions remained glaringly unanswered, perpetuating a climate of uncertainty and hindering transparent engagement for those entangled in China's regulatory web.

The proposed amendments, currently under review, mark a significant departure from the existing legal framework. The draft underscores unwavering adherence to the Communist Party's leadership, aligning with President Xi Jinping's own political objectives, notably the "Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation." The suggested amendment proposes an expansion and greater control on law bringing new accountability measures, establishes updated objectives for conducting confidential work, and investigates inventive methods to amplify awareness of these initiatives.[2]

The draft's first article pays homage to Xi Jinping's flagship political objective and adds the aspiration for "socialist modernization construction" through secrecy work. This aligns with Xi's two-step plan to make China a "great modern socialist country" by 2035.[3] The amendments not only consolidate power within the CCP but also make it less accountable for guarding state secrets putting Xi at the helm of all decision making. Explicitly expounded is an unwavering commitment to the preeminence of the party's leadership in matters of confidentiality, legal governance, and technological integration, thereby underscoring the singular influence of Xi.

However, concerns loom large over potential political instrumentalization of information. The enhanced control of the CCP, coupled with stringent accountability mechanisms, raises fears of intensified internal repression and added policy pressures on local authorities. The proposed regulations on data processing and restrictions on state employees with access to secrets travelling abroad underscore a concerted effort to leverage technology for information control. The draft's underlying paranoia regarding economic and technological developments becomes apparent through its emphasis on confidentiality in scientific and technological research.

The draft amendments wield societal consequences that stretch beyond political machinations, insidiously infiltrating the intricate threads of Chinese social structure. Through the insidious integration of secretive endeavors into the national education and cadre-training systems, the CCP unabashedly seeks to manipulate public perception and indoctrinate a subservient collective consciousness fixated on shielding state secrets. The draft's relentless focus on propagandistic awareness campaigns exposes a calculated strategy to coerce public involvement in the relentless preservation of a dubious national security agenda.

Economically, the draft's provisions regarding economic and technological information suggest an era of heightened securitization. Encouraging confidentiality in scientific and technological endeavours aims to fortify China's capabilities in key sectors. However, this approach raises questions about the potential hindrance of domestic and international collaborations in science and innovation.[4]

As China aggressively positions itself on the global stage, the mutating State Secrets Law carries far-reaching consequences for international relations. The intensified emphasis on information control and opacity poses a potential deterrent for foreign entities contemplating collaborations, casting shadows over notions of transparency and the unrestricted dissemination of information.

One immediate and unsettling consequence emanates from heightened scrutiny and constraints imposed on state employees possessing classified information traveling abroad. This manoeuver not only signals an escalated commitment to control of information but also injects intricate challenges into international collaborations. The curtailment of mobility for professionals, researchers, and experts not only stifles the free exchange of ideas and expertise but introduces substantial roadblocks. Collaborative endeavours, especially in realms like science, technology, and academia, may strain under the evolving dynamics of engagement with an increasingly secretive China, prompting concerns and uncertainties within the global community.

Moreover, the emphasis on confidentiality in scientific and technological research, while aimed at bolstering China's prowess in key sectors, introduces a potential dichotomy. On one hand, it signals a desire for self-reliance and a safeguarding of critical knowledge. On the other, it raises concerns about reciprocity and transparency in international collaborations. As the global scientific community thrives on openness and shared knowledge, a China more inclined towards secrecy and control will find itself at odds with the collaborative spirit that propels innovation and breakthroughs.

China's State Secrets Law, undergoing a radical transformation, epitomizes the nation's strategic shifts within a convoluted geopolitical landscape. The proposed amendments, with their heavy-handed emphasis on CCP dominance, stringent accountability mechanisms, and manipulative societal engagement, paint a disconcerting portrait of China's authoritarian ambitions in tightening its grip on information. As these draconian changes unfold, the sweeping political and societal repercussions will not only mould China's trajectory but also cast a dark and coercive shadow over its interactions with the global community, showcasing a regime increasingly bent on control and suppression.


[1]Gelatt, T. (1989). Article 4 Recommended Citation Gelatt. Cornell International Law Journal, [online] 22(2). Available at: [Accessed 20 Nov. 2023].
[2]South China Morning Post (2023); China dusts off state secrets law amid national security push. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Nov. 2023].
[3] China Focus: Xi unveils plan to make China ‘great modern socialist country’ by mid-21st century - Xinhua | [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Nov. 2023].
[4] (n.d.) What’s in the New Amendments to China’s State Secrets Law? [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 Nov. 2023].

(The paper is the author’s individual scholastic articulation. The author certifies that the article/paper is original in content, unpublished and it has not been submitted for publication/web upload elsewhere, and that the facts and figures quoted are duly referenced, as needed, and are believed to be correct). (The paper does not necessarily represent the organisational stance... More >>

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