Post Tablighi Jamaat Fiasco - The Way Forward
Soumya Awasthi, Associate Fellow, VIF

Last one week has seen an exponential rise in N-COVID-19 cases, with the religious congregation of Tablighi Jamaat (TJ) followers at the Markaz in Delhi, acting as a significant trigger. It is appalling that despite so many advisories from the state and central governments, the TJ chose to proceed ahead with its congregation, thereby exposing a large section of the society to the virus. At the same time, the Markaz has also impacted the statistics of the Covid cases in many other countries as well, becoming a 'super spreader case'.

This article discusses the Tablighi Jamaat movement, its global outreach, analysis of their behaviour against the paramedics, and how the moderates within the Muslim community perceive the situation. In the end, it will discuss some solutions to move forward in the context of N-Covid chaos.

Nizamuddin Meet- the 'Super Spreader'

Religious congregations have been responsible for the spread of the virus in many countries.First 'Patient 31' in South Korea, where a Christian cult called the Shincheonji Church members gathered for mass prayer.1 Second, the congregations which took place in Iran at the Shrine of Fatima Masume and Shrine of Imam Raza because the authorities underestimated the Covid-19 threat.2 Third, one of the largest Covid-19 clusters of Southeast Asia was at Selangor,3 Malaysia, where TJ organized Markaz led to infecting several foreign preachers including Indians.

Tablighi Jamaat Markaz In India

Post the Malaysian Markaz, Indian members of the TJ returned to India, acting as carriers of the virus. The New Delhi Markaz of the TJ took place at the Alami Markaz Banglewali Masjid between March 11 and 13, attended by more than 3,400 people. There were attendees from 19 Indian states, and nearly 1000 foreign participants came from China, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Bangladesh.4

The gathering took place despite the initial warnings and advisories5 announced in January and February by the government. Moreover, international preachers violated their tourist visa conditions by engaging in religious preaching.

The damage caused by the Markaz held in Delhi had devastating impact on India's fight against corona. Several members of the Markaz and people who came in contact with these individuals including the Kashmiri Jamaat's head also succumbed to death.6

While the government sought to disperse the gathering, the Tablighi Jamaat Amir Maulana Saad Kandhalvi was unrelenting. Speaking to his followers, he remarked, "If you think you will die, if you assemble in a masjid, let me tell you, there is no better place to die". It was also clear from the audio transcripts of that speech that he tried to stop people from leaving the gathering by saying that "the country is trying to divide the Muslim brothers.7

Despite multiple government warnings and advisories and the apparent health hazards, what motivated the group to be so obscurantist and fundamentalist? To answer this question, it is necessary to understand the Tablighi Jamaat movement before going further ahead.

What Is Tablighi Jamaat?

Islam believes in Ummah – the brotherhood of all Muslims across all geographies. There are strong and close linkages between the Tablighi Jamaat members and communities across the world. These primarily manifest in the form of interactions of religious groups ranging from small level to large level gatherings. Many of these are either state or self-sponsored, while some manage through zakat funds (charity).8

The meaning of Tabligh is to convey the words of Allah and the Quran, while Jamaat means a group. Therefore, Tablighi Jamaat is a group of people who talk about Islam, Allah, Quran and Hadith. 9

The movement began in the Mewat region of India in 1920 by Muhammad Ilyas al-Kandhalvi (1885-1944), whose forefathers trace their linkages to the family of Abu Bakr the first Caliph. 10

He was a graduate of Deoband Madrassa and in 1910 started the Tablighi Jamaat to produce preachers who had in-depth knowledge about Islam and were not merely religious functionaries.11 He worked on Tariqa-e-Tabligh (method of preaching). He gave the slogan "O Muslims, become a True Muslim!" which became the central tenet of Tablighi Jamaat.

TJ got influenced by the Shah Waliullah (1703-1762) tradition (Islamic revivalism) and philosophy which influenced the Deoband movement of 1867 as well. Like Deoband, Barelvi and Ahl-e-Hadith school of thought, it drew upon the Waliullah tradition and not only followed its features according to its needs but also demonstrated an inclination to swing between one extreme to another.12

The Tablighi Jamaat emerged out of the Deoband movement and shares some of the features of the Muslim Brotherhood and Jamaat-e-Islami, like strict monotheism, divine attributes, purifying Islam from accretions, anti-Sufism and developing the moral integrity of the individual.13 Basically, like many other groups of the time, TJ was established in response to the deterioration of moral values amongst the Muslims of India and to revive Islam.

Its primary objective is transnational da'wa i.e. propagation of religion. Tablighi Jamaat is a neo-fundamentalist Islamic transnational movement with global outreach. It has centres in approximately 193 countries including South Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America.14

Tablighi Jamaat claims to be non-political and non-sectarian; most of its adherents coming from Hanafi Deoband persuasion. Most of the Deobandi political and sectarian organizations support their activities and objectives. The TJ encourages people to follow the Prophet in every aspect ranging from dressing, eating, to praying. The members of Tablighi are encouraged to enroll themselves in Deobandi Madrassas to learn the holy text.15

Lenz Raymann, K. quotes Reetz and Mumtaz who describe the belief of Tablighi Jamaat. They explain: "It rejects such popular expressions of religion as the veneration of Saints, visiting shrines, and observing the syncretic rituals associated with popular Sufism. Jamaat workers are rigid in following orthodox rituals and practices and in observing the rules of shariah”. 16

Objectives and Activities of TJ

The Tablighi Jamaat has a six-point agenda that is mandatory for all the members to follow and ensure that the rest of their fellows also adhere to them. These six principles are Kalma(profession of faith), Namaz/Salah (Prayer), Ilm-o-Zikr (knowledge), Ikram-e- Walidain (services to parents), Ikram Muslimeen (Services to Muslims) and Dawat O Tabligh (Invitation to religion and preaching). 17

These objectives they fulfill in two ways by, firstly, Khuruj (the Proselytizing Tour); the jamaatis are expected to spend ten days in a month (Ashra), or 120 days in a year (Teen Chilla) and if possible 150 days (5 Maah-Beroon) continuously and devote their time towards Tablighi mission. And secondly, by participating in Ijtema (an annual gathering)18,19 which takes place in the headquarters of the respective countries for three days. It involves talks, debates, speeches, recitation from the Quran and long duration of prayers. The members live in closed and intimate spaces, sharing a meal from the same plate and reciting prayers together.

Some practices that Tablighi Jamaat does not approve are marriages performed at a grand scale or any celebrations which reflect wealth and status.

Global Reach of TJ

With the partition of British India, the Tablighi Jamaat soon had two other significant chapters - one in Raiwind, near Lahore in Pakistan and another in Bangladesh after 1971. International chapters followed quickly after that, including one in Hejaz in Saudi Arabia, making it the fastest-growing Muslim movement in the world.20

Over the years, the Tablighi Jamaat has expanded into what is probably the most significant Islamic movement of contemporary times. Most of the Muslim-majority nations of the world saw the infusion of some TJ presence between the end of World War II and the 1960s, except for Soviet Central Asia.21

Particularly, many youths converted to Tablighi ideology, which could be seen as a form of rebellion against the authority of their elders. They do not believe in the old rituals as professed by elders of the society. For them conversion to Tablighi ideology is a process of enlightenment. For the youth, Islam means only two things; following the footsteps of the Prophet Muhammad and doing good. There is only one path in Islam: the way of the Prophet. In this process, established religious and social values get restructured according to the youth of the community, which apparently is becoming more conservative and inward-looking.

TJ's membership in South Asia is indeed the largest given the beginning of revivalist movement and the fact that Islam had a rich legacy before coming under the rule of the British Empire.

TJ has been most successful in Africa, where it is functional in at least 35 of the continent's 52 countries. 22 Ironically, TJ has been successful even in Thailand, a Buddhist majority country. In 2003, some 100,000 Muslims from South East and South Asia came to a mass TJ gathering in Thailand. 23

As per the Pew Forum report of September 2010, there may be as many as 17,094,000 Muslims in Western Europe who are part of the Jamaat-e-Islam and Tablighi Jamaat. The members of TJ in Europe, in the UK, France and Spain are mostly of South Asian and North African lineage. In the year 2018, Tablighi Jamaat of Britain got divided into two groups with one owing allegiance to the Maulana Saad's TJ Markaz, India. In contrast, the other faction followed Raiwind Markaz, Pakistan. Its European membership is estimated to be 150,000 or maybe more. In the United States of America, some analysts claim that there may be around 50,000 Muslims affiliated with TJ.24

The growing membership of TJ across the world from East to West and North to South gives an indication that the TJ network has the potential of providing an alternative to the existing national Muslim associations.

Radicalism and Role in Acts of Terror

The Tablighi Jamaat's apolitical stand helps them avoid the attention of the media and governments, which helps in executing their objectives without any hurdles. Some scholars believe that in the case of India, the conservative inclination of Tablighi Jamaat has served as a bulwark against radical Islam. However, it is different in the case of countries such as Pakistan and Afghanistan; the story is quite different there. 25

Some TJ followers have worked as allies of jihadi and sectarian organizations. However, once they joined the militant organizations, they cut off their links with the Tablighis. The terror groups have used the TJ congregations as a selection camp for recruitment.

Tablighi Jamaat has been a sympathizer and supporter of jihadi organizations such as the Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, the Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami, the Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, Al Qaeda and Taliban. According to India Abroad News Service report, "As per WikiLeaks, some of the 9/11 al-Qaeda suspects detained by the US in Guantanamo Bay had stayed in the Tablighi Jamaat headquarters in Nizamuddin West, New Delhi, years ago".[xxvi] According to Pakistani security analysts and Indian investigators, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM) members, involved in the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight 814 in 1999, were members of Tablighi Jamaat.27

The 2011 U.S investigation reports suggest that Tablighi Jamaat had supported members of Al Qaeda to get visa and funds to travel from Pakistan. Moreover, there are many more such cases from Kenya, Somalia and Pakistan.28 It brings us to the conclusion that Tablighi Jamaat is used as a conduit by Islamic terrorist organizations to felicitate travels for their members.

The Tablighi Jamaat has become jihadi spotter as they train or preach the Muslims to devote themselves to religion. One of the attackers in the 2017 London Bridge Attack, Youssef Zaghba, was associated with the Tablighi Jamaat. Mohammed Siddique Khan, leader of the 7th July London Bombings in 2005, was also a member of the Tablighi Jamaat.29

Why is Tablighi Jamaat Antagonized-their Defence?

Spitting and pelting stones have almost become weapons for the Tablighis. It makes one question as to what can be the reason for this kind of deplorable behaviour? Some Deobandis explain this kind of reaction as an emotional outburst of anger and anxiety amongst the Tablighis.

Shahdab, an alumnus of Darul Uloom Deoband, said that the "media got it all wrong". He argued that the Markaz did not get enough reaction time after the announcement of the 21 days lockdown. He further added that after the meeting with the Delhi Police, they had agreed to cooperate; however, not enough support was given to them in vacating the venue. According to some news reports, there have been protests against medical staff and resistance against going to hospitals is not related to Covid-19.30 Some of the issues cited by them are CAA, NRC, Triple Talaq, Babri Masjid etc. The youth were also provoked by the media calling the Tablighi's as "Corona Jihadi" and calling Maulana Saad, Amir of Tablighi Jamaat, Delhi as "Maulana Jihadi."31 Some said that the Muslims in general and youth in particular, especially those who are facing identity crises, are being cornered by the system for being Muslims. "Othering” of the Muslim youth in university politics, on the streets and also in media has hurt their emotions.32 As a result, there is a lack of trust and cooperation.

Unfortunately, the community is still hanging on to the political matters while the entire nation is combatting the national health emergency.

Moderate Voices in the Muslim Community

There are a few moderate individual voices within the Islamic Community who came forward and criticized the behavior of the members of Tablighi Jamaat.

Najeeb Jung, former Lt. Governor of Delhi and Vice Chancellor of Jamia Milia Islamia, in an article, points out how blaming the government of the day has become a habit for the people of this country. As rightly pointed out, there are certain fault lines within the Muslim community because of their extreme dependency on religion. Madrassa, Maulana and Maulvi have been ruling the lives of the ordinary Muslim, making them intellectually handicapped.33

Maulana Madani, General Secretary, Jamiat Ulema Hind, said, "India has tens of lakhs of mosques and all, but few followed government's orders on Covid-19 to the tee. We are all in this together. Indian Muslim is 100 per cent with the country and will remain with it". He criticized Maulana Saad's speech defying the social distancing norms in the name of Allah. He countered it by saying that it is haram to violate the law of the land. 34 His colleague, Jamiat spokesperson Niaz Farooqui added that the community should not get a feeling of witch-hunting. "The gravity of the problem is large. Instead of addressing this problem, we are engaging in blame-game. Positivity is needed," he said. 35

Some renowned Islamic scholars too have criticized Tablighi Jamaat for the actions and reactions. At the same time, they have also suggested that the matter must be resolved in a humane way without a sense of vengeance. Author Mahmood Kooria, at Ashoka University, said "minorities should have been extra careful in situations like this, primarily as one of the first deaths in the country was also related to Islamic pilgrimage." Religious gatherings across Asia have been at the forefront of spreading the virus, whether churches or mosques in South Korea, Singapore, and Malaysia, and we see that happening in India too now. 36

Tablighi Jamaat is an Islamic missionary group, said V Shefeeque, who teaches political science at Muslim Educational Society College, Mampad, Kerala. He added that religious gatherings, especially by Semitic religions, have resulted in the spread of Coronavirus in many countries, especially in South Asia. "In light of these developments, this programme should have been cancelled. Provided, many of the followers and leaders of this group belong to educated classes, including doctors and teachers," he said.37

Towards Peace and Harmony- the Way Forward

Post the Markaz fiasco that has heavily tarnished the public image of TJ and its Aamir, the need of the hour is to ensure that the communal spread is contained. It must be ensured that the Tablighi Jamaat episode is not given a communal colour. The TJ leadership must ensure that its members do not indulge in any anti-national activity. At the same time, it is necessary that the all communities take a lesson from this episode and understands that there is nothing against any particular community that the authorities are attempting.

One of the Quranic verses says, "God does not change the condition of people until they change what is within themselves". (Sura 13:11)It means that God only showers His blessing on those who are willing to accept new things in life and become a better person and do not have arrogance in their attitude. Some of the reasons leading to conflict between Muslims and modern societies are that they find comfort in thinking about the "Golden Age" and wish to bring back the glorious time of the Prophet. Failing that, they blame everything on modernism and western culture. Further, they hope that the only way their miseries will end is the arrival of the Caliphate.

There is a need to recognize that the only way forward is to mutually work together for national goals and for that all communities must mobilize all the resources to provide the necessary support.

Some of the recommendations/measures for bringing peace and harmony are outlined below: -

  1. An immediate step can be to move towards taking a collective responsibility and formalizing the process of inviting all the Islamic scholars and clerics like Imam Bukhari, Maulana Mahmood Madani and others on a common platform. Besides, head of various organization like Darul Uloom Deoband, Jamiat e-Ulema, Nadwat-al-Ulama (Lucknow) and many such organizations could come up with a cooperative plan to control the situation.
  2. Formation of Peace Core Committee (PCC) at various levels comprising Muslim clergies, activists, scholars, artists, women and other communities’ representatives and government officials.
  3. Initiate un-biased investigation followed by prosecution of individuals, irrespective of his/her religion for breaking the laws under Section 188 of the IPC and other relevant laws as applicable.
  4. Visa norms must be revisited to ensure that Tablighi Markaz kind of fiasco does not happen once again. All those who flouted the provisions of the tourist via norms and travelled to India without a valid visa for religious preaching must be penalised.
  5. The Mosques which are giving shelter to the attendees of the Nizamuddin Markaz and could be infected, should not only declare the details, turn over the absconders and be prepared to face the law. Regrettably, their leader Maulana Saad, did not set a very shining example for their followers.
  6. The Islamic scholars and social leaders must take the lead in denouncing the extremist ideologies as also educate those who are driven by the distorted version of religion. They also should condemn all those who deliver inflammatory speeches. This can be done through the use of social media under the given circumstances and later through the Friday Prayers at Jama Masjid and other mosques.
  7. The Muslim clergy must provide a point of view that violence in any form and way is not permissible in Islam and that those who indulge in crime will end up in hell and not heaven.
  8. At the same time, there is a need that the government should give a fillip to the welfare programmes for the Muslim community. It can further run health and sanitation capsule programmes for the community and exclusive Health and Welfare schemes for the community.
  9. Excessive media attention can sometimes inadvertently work against the plan and end up propagating false narratives of extremists giving them legitimacy, power and outreach. For example, in the current episode, many news channels ended up antagonising Muslims by use of terms like "Corona Jihad", "Jihadi Maulvi" etc. Therefore, the media needs to perform a constructive role.
  10. Rewarding individuals and organisations who have worked towards maintaining peace and harmony in the society like Maulana Wahiduddin Khan and some local citizens who set an example of peace and harmony amidst the prevailing cacophony. These gestures will help reestablish faith and trust between the two communities and the administration.
  11. There can be some Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) like forming a group to discuss the matters of conflict and resolve them amicably.

The defence of the indefensible actions of the Markaz are just excuses and deliberate use of victimhood syndrome. Irrespective of religion, people have to be aware that any kind of large gatherings are perilous when the virus is spreading rapidly.
The leaders of all the communities should be persuaded to raise awareness amongst their followers that following the protocols suggested by the experts should be a top priority to control the spread of the virus. A deliberate flouting of the instructions is a criminal offence.

Endnotes
  1. "'Patient 31' and South Korea's sudden spike in coronavirus cases", at https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/03/31-south-korea-sudden-spike-coronavirus-cases-200303065953841.html (Accessed March 30, 2020)
  2. Rozina Sini & Armen Shahbazian, 'N-Covidvirus: Iran holy-shrine-lickers face prison', at BBC Trending, https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-51706021, (Accessed March 30, 2020)
  3. Reuters Report, "How Sri Petalingtabligh became Southeast Asia'sCovid-19 hotspot" at https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/03/575560/how-sri-petaling-tabligh-became-southeast-asias-N-Covid-19-hotspot (Accessed March 30,2020)
  4. Neeta Sharma, Sukirti Dwivedi, Edited by Deepshikha Ghosh, " Nearly 100 Delhi Mosque-Linked Covidvirus Cases, 2,100 Evacuated: 10 Facts" at https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/N-N-Covidvirus-india-delhi-markaz-nizamuddin-mosque-sealed-after-7-N-Covid-19-deaths-850-moved-out-for-qu-2203336 (Accessed April 01, 2020)
  5. The Navhind Times, "Appeal for information on Markaz congregation attendees", http://www.navhindtimes.in/appeal-for-information-on-markaz-congregation-attendees/ (Accessed on March 30, 2020)
  6. Ahmed Ali Fayaz, "COVID-19 in J&K: Tableeghi Jamaat Head Dies, Associates 'Infected'", at https://www.thequint.com/news/india/jammu-and-kashmir-first-coronavirus-death-tableeghi-jamaat-chief-travel-history (Accessed on March 30, 2020)
  7. Munish Chandra Pandey, "It's time to stay in mosques, Allah will save us: Tablighi Jamaat chief told followers in leaked audio", at, https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/it-s-time-to-stay-in-mosques-allah-will-save-us-tablighi-jamaat-chief-told-followers-in-leaked-audio-1662297-2020-04-01 (Accessed April 01,2020)
  8. Peter Mandaville, "Sufis &Salafis: The Political Discourse of Transnational Islam" in Robert Hefner (ed.), Remaking Muslim Politics, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2005.
  9. Mohammad AtharuddinMunne Bharti, "What is Tabligi Jamaat and what is the meaning of Markaz?" at https://khabar.ndtv.com/news/india/what-is-tablighi-jamaat-and-what-is-the-meaning-of-markaz-2203909 (Accessed April 1, 2020).
  10. Yoginder Sikand, "The Tablighi Jamaat in Mewat — Part 2", http://twocircles.net/2010apr16/tablighi_jamaat_mewat_part_2.html (Accessed April 17, 2010).
  11. Yogendra Sikand, No. x.
  12. Yogendra Sikand, No. x.
  13. Lenz-Raymann, K., "Salafi Isalm: Social Transformation And Political Islam", Securitization Of Islam: A Vicious Circle: Counter-Terrorism And Freedom Of Religion In Central Asia, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. 2014, Pp. 69-108.
  14. Mohammad AtharuddinMunne Bharti, No. ix.
  15. Yogendra Sikand, No. x.
  16. Mohammad AtharuddinMunne Bharti, No. ix.
  17. Mohammad Amir Rana, "Part 2- Hanafi-Deobandi Organisation" in Gateway to Terrorism, page number 139-140, New Millennium Publication, U.K, 2003.
  18. Khalid Hasan, "Tableeghi Jamaat: all that you know and don't", https://web.archive.org/web/20160108132051/http://archives.dailytimes.com.pk/editorial/13-Aug-2006/postcard-usa-tableeghi-jamaat-all-that-you-know-and-don-t-khalid-hasan (Accessed April 01, 2020)
  19. Metcalf, Barbara, "Islam and women: The case of the Tablighi Jama'at", Stanford University, Archived from the original on February 27,1996, Accessed January 09, 2010.
  20. Angel. M. Rabasa, Cheryl Benardet.all, "The Muslim world after 9/11", Project Air Force, RAND, 2005.
  21. American Foreign Policy Council, "Tablighi Jamaat", https://studyres.com/doc/7885824/the-tablighi-jama-at-full-report, (Accessed March 31, 2020)
  22. Janson, Marloes, "The Prophet's Path Tablighi Jamaat in The Gambia", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277066373_The_Prophet's_Path_Tablighi_Jamaat_in_The_Gambia (Accessed April 01,2020)
  23. Pew Research Centre, "Muslim Networks and Movements in Western Europe", https://www.pewresearch.org/wp- content/uploads/sites/7/2010/09/Muslim-networks-full-report.pdf (Accessed April 01, 2020)
  24. Pew Research, No. xxii
  25. ShailMayaram, "Why Flinging the Term 'N-N-Covid Jihad' at the Tablighi Jamaat Makes No Sense", https://thewire.in/religion/using-N-N-Covid-jihad-for-the-tablighi-jamaat-makes-no-sense-besides-being-inflammatory (Accessed April 02, 2020)
  26. Security Weekly, "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism", https://web.archive.org/web/20140905014000 (Accessed April 02,2020)
  27. S. Gurumurthy, "Tablighi Jamaat- its other, evil side" at https://www.vifindia.org/article/2019/april/02/N-N-Covidvirus-tablighi-jamaat-its-other-evil-side (Accessed April 02,2020).
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Personal Interview with the alumnus of Darul Uloom Deoband, April 01, 2020.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Saskia Sassen, "Expulsions: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy", The Mosaic Rooms, Naomi Klein: Let Them Drown—The Violence of Othering in a Warming World, https://vimeo.com/166018049 (Accessed April 08, 2020).
  33. Najeeb Jung, "The Markaz in Nizamuddin has thrown light on a malaise-and a challenge", at https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/coroanvirus-nizamuddin-markaz-india-lockdown-6340969/ (Accessed April 02,2020).
  34. India Today Maulana Madani interview with Rahul Kanwal, "Violating social distancing norms in name of namaz is haram: Jamiat Ulema-E-Hind chief", at https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/violating-social-distancing-norms-in-name-of-namaz-is-haram-jamiat-ulema-e-hind-chief-1662642-2020-04-02 (Accessed April 02,2020).
  35. A.M. Jigeesh, "Tablighi Jamaat draws widespread condemnation from Muslim society", at
    https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/national/academics-among-muslims-condemn-the-act-of-tablighi-jamaat-in-nizamuddin/article31218658.ece# (Accessed April 02,2020).
  36. Ibid.
  37. Ibid.
Further Readings
  • Ashok K. Behuria (2008) Sects Within Sect: The Case Of Deobandi–Barelvi Encounter In Pakistan, Strategic Analysis, 32:1, 57-80, DOI: 10.1080/09700160801886330
  • Francis Robinson (2008) Islamic Reform And Modernities In South Asia, Modern Asian Studies 42, 2/3 Pp. 259–281. C 2008 Cambridge University Press Doi:10.1017/S0026749X07002922 First Published Online 30 July 2007
  • Masud, Muhammad Khalid, Ed. 2000. Travellers In Faith: Studies Of The Tablighi Jama'at As A Transnational Islamic Movement For Faith Renewal. Leiden: Brill.
  • Peter Mandaville, (2005), Chapter 12, Sufis &Salafis: The Political Discourse Of Transnational Islam' In Robert Hefner (Ed.), Remaking Muslim Politics, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Metcalf, Barbara. 1993. Living Hadith In The Tablighi Jama'at. Journal Of Asian Studies, 52 (3 ): 584-608. 1994. "Remaking Ourselves": Islamic Self--Fashioning In A Global Movement Of Spiritual Renewal. In Accounting For Fundamentalisms, Ed. M. Marty And S. Appleby, 706-25 . Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  • Metcalf, Barbara (27 February 1996). "Islam And Women: The Case Of The Tablighi Jama'at". Stanford University. Archived from the Original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
  • 1998. Women And Men In A Contemporary Pietist Movement: The Case Of The Tablighi Jama'at. In Appropriating Gender: Women's Activism And Politicized Religion In South Asia, Ed. P. Jeffery And A. Basu, 1 07-21. New York: Routledge.
  • Meyers, Diana. 1 989. Self, Society , And Personal Choice. New York: Columbia University Press
  • Metcalf, Barbara D. "'Traditionalist' Islamic Activism: Deoband, Tablighis, And Talibs" Essay Written For Social Science Research Council, (Retrieved From: Http://Essays.Ssrc.Org/Sept11/Essays/Metcalf_Text_Only.Html)
  • MasoodaBano (ed.), (2018), 'Modern Islamic Authority And Social Change, Volume 1, Evolving Debates In Muslim-Majority Countries', Edinburgh University Press
  • Mohammad Talib, (1998), 'Tablighis In The Making Of Muslim Identity' In Islam Communities And The Nation: Muslim Identities In South Asia And Beyond, Ed. Mushiru Hasan, pp 313-14New Delhi: Manohar Publishers & Distributors.
  • Ahmad, M. (1991), 'Islamic Fundamentalism In South Asia: The Jammat–I-Islami And The Tablighi Jammat', Fundamentalisms Observed.
  • Alexiev, A. (2005), 'Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad's Stealthy Legions', Middle East Quarterly.
  • Hoffstaedter, G. (2011) Modern Muslim Identities: Negotiating Religion And Ethnicity In Malaysia. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute Of Asian Studies
  • Ali, J. (2003), 'Islamic Revivalism: The Case Of The Tablighi Jamaat', Journal Of Muslim Minority Affairs,pp 173-181.
  • Dickson, R. (2009), 'The Tablighi Jama 'At In Southwestern Ontario: Making Muslim Identities And Networks In Canadian Urban Spaces', Contemporary Islam, 99-112.
  • Masud, M. K. (2000). The Growth And Development Of The Tablighi Jama'At In India. In M. K. Masud (Ed.), Travellers In Faith: Studies Of The Tablighi Jama'At As A Transnational Islamic Movement For Faith Revival (Pp. 3–43).
  • Sikand, Y. S. (1998),, 'The Origins And Growth Of The Tablighi Jamaat In Britain', Islam And Christian-Muslim Relations, 171-192, Boston: Brill.
  • Tittensor, D. (2014), 'The Changing Nature Of Islamic Mission: The Cases Of Tablighi Jama'at And The Gülen Movement', Islam And Development: Exploring The Invisible Aid Economy.

(The paper is the author’s individual scholastic articulation. The author certifies that the article/paper is original in content, unpublished and it has not been submitted for publication/web upload elsewhere, and that the facts and figures quoted are duly referenced, as needed, and are believed to be correct). (The paper does not necessarily represent the organisational stance... More >>


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